Keynote Lecture: Cultural and individual level correlates of the interdependent happines
Recent series of investigation conducted across cultures suggests that interdependent happiness (Hitokoto & Uchida, 2017), that is built not on the notion of self as enhancing and independent, but on the notion of self as harmonizing and interdependent can be more meaningful under the interdependent contexts. I will review studies conducted across cultural, socio-ecological, and classroom contexts on the levels and correlates of the interdependent happiness scale supporting this idea (IHS: Hitokoto & Uchida, 2015). Specifically, I will present how interdependent happiness is endorsed more among collectivistic cultural members as compared to individualistic cultures, while overall well-being that focuses on the individual level of happiness did not show the same pattern. The endorsement of interdependent happiness was further found to be positively correlated with age, compassion to others, and withdrawal from school bullying, exclusively in interdependent contexts. Using within nation regional comparison, I argue that living style related to farming might promote the endorsement of interdependent happiness. The correlates of interdependent happiness is also subjected to the cultural context, and interdependent cultural self-construal is more predictive of the concept in collectivistic culture. Based on these reviews, I argue that the measurement of well-being tacitly assumed independent side of the self as a target of measurement, and alternative measure can be established and could show different picture in the cross-cultural finding of well-being. Contextual nature of human positive psychological functioning is discussed.